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“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句等重点句型详解

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“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句等重点句型详解知识点包括“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句、现在分词短语作状语、独立主格结构的用法、neither...nor...、过去完成进行时的用法等部分,有关“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句等重点句型详解的详情如下:

“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句

After Dr Bethune's deathChairman Mao Zedong wrote an article in memory of himin which he praised Dr Bethune as a hero to be remembered in China.

白求恩大夫死后,毛泽东主席写了一篇文章纪念他,赞扬白求恩大夫是中国人民永远铭记的英雄。

(1)句式分析:这是一个主从复合句。主句是Chairman Mao Zedong wrote an article in memory of him,后面是in which引导的非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词an article。

(2)“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句

“介词+关系代词”可引导限制性定语从句,也可引导非限制性定语从句,现将其用法归纳如下:

 

The papers (which) he was searching for have been recovered.

他刚才在寻找的那些文件已经找回来了。

The holiday villa had a large window on every side from which(=where) one could enjoy the lakeside scenery,as enchanting as fairyland.

度假别墅轩窗四周,满目湖光山色,真如仙境。

The farm on which we worked ten years ago isn't what it used to be.

十年前我们工作过的那个农场已不是过去的样子了。(on the farm在农场里)

The bridge on which they were standing collapsed.

他们站在上面的那座桥倒塌了。(stand on the bridge站在桥上)

He was educated at the local high school,after which he went to Peking University.

在当地高中接受完教育后,他去了北京大学。(根据句子的具体含义)

Ten years of hard work changed her greatly,for which reason he could hardly recognize her at first sight.

十年的辛劳使她变化很大,他一眼很难认出她来。(which作定语)

注意:(1)指抽象或隐含关系时,介词要置于关系代词之前。

The decision was made at the meeting during which I kept falling asleep.

这项决定是在我瞌睡不断的那次会议上做出的。(during不能后置)

(2)某些两个词或三个词构成的固定动词短语,在定语从句中一般不宜将介词置于关系代词前。

This is the girl whom he will take care of.

这就是他将照顾的女孩。(of不宜前置)

现在分词短语作状语

He crashed into the stone,spilling the milk everywhere.他撞在石头上,牛奶洒得到处都是。

(1)句式分析:这是一个简单句,spilling the milk everywhere是现在分词短语在句中作结果状语。

(2)现在分词短语作状语时表示自然而然的结果。如:

He died,leaving nothing but debts.

他死了,除了债务什么也没留下。

[思维拓展]

不定式作结果状语时常表出乎意料的结果,且其前可加only表示强调。如:

We hurried to say bye to him,only to find that he had left.

我们匆忙去和他道别,结果发现他已经离开了。

独立主格结构的用法

After a whilea group of women came alongeach balancing a pot of water on her head.

过了一会儿,一群妇女走了过来,每个人头上都顶着一罐水。

(1)句式分析:这是一个简单句。本句中each balancing a pot of water on her head是一个由代词each和动词­ing形式短语组成的独立结构,充当句子的状语,这种语法现象被称作“独立主格结构”。

(2)独立主格结构的用法:

 

Time permitting,we will go for an outing tomorrow.

如果时间允许的话,我们明天外出游玩。(Time和permit是逻辑上的主谓关系)

Many funny stories included in the book,it is very popular with children.

这本书中有许多好笑的故事,深受孩子们的喜爱。(stories和included是逻辑上的动宾关系)

The exam to be held tomorrow,I can't go to the cinema tonight.

明天将举行考试,今晚我不能去看电影了。(The exam和hold是逻辑上的动宾关系,且表示将要发生的动作)

So many windows to clean,I had to devote the whole morning.

因为有许多窗户要擦,我只好用了整个上午。(windows是clean这一动作的承受者,但句子主语I为clean这一动作的执行者,所以这里用不定式的主动形式表示被动含义)

She looked at him,her eyes full of excitement and curiosity.

她看着他,目光里充满了兴奋和好奇。

She came up,her hair a mess.

她走了过来,头发蓬乱不堪。

注意:在独立主格结构中用动词不定式、现在分词和过去分词的意义是不同的。动词不定式往往表示动作没有发生或即将发生,现在分词表示动作正在进行或现在的状态,过去分词往往表示动作已经完成。独立主格结构有时可以和with复合结构互换。

With autumn coming,the tree leaves turn yellow and some birds fly to the south.=Autumn coming,the tree leaves turn yellow and some birds fly to the south.

秋天来了,树叶变黄了,一些鸟儿飞到了南方。

neither...nor...

Neither she nor her friends thought about moving the stone out of the road.

她和她的朋友都没有想到把石头移开。

(1)句式分析:这是一个简单句。主语是Neither she nor her friends,谓语是thought about,moving the stone out of the road是宾语。

(2)neither...nor... “既不……也不……”,为并列连词词组,可以连接两个相同的句子成分(如两个主语、宾语、表语、谓语、状语),连接并列主语时,谓语动词和靠近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。如:

I have neither time nor money.

我没有时间,也没有钱。(连接两个宾语)

He could neither read nor write.

他既不会读也不会写。(连接两个谓语)

Neither you nor he is right.

你和他都不对。(连接两个主语)

[思维拓展]

either...or..., not only...but also..., not...but...等并列连词词组与neither...nor...一样,当连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词和靠近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。

过去完成进行时的用法

She had beeen working all day and was very tired.她工作了一整天,非常累。

(1)句式分析:这是一个简单句。主语是She,and连接两个并列的谓语。had been working用了过去完成进行时。

(2)过去完成进行时的用法说明:

 

 

 

 

()

They had been building the road by the end of last month.

到上个月月末为止他们一直在修这条路。

They had built the road by the end of last month.

上个月月末他们已修好了这条路。

最后编辑:2021-03-23 08:36:56

相关知识点

典型例题

【第1题】  

单句语法填空

1.Nelson Mandela devoted his life to fighting for a free society in               all people live together in harmony.

2.The bus was trapped in the snowstorm,              (cause) the delay.

3.More time               (give),we should have done it much better.

4.According to my research,neither your restaurant              mine offers a balanced diet.

5.The Smiths               (live) in the countryside before they moved to New York.

6.He               (live) in an old house before he bought a new flat in the town.

7.Tom looked at Jenny,tears              (fill) his eyes,and shouted out the words              (hide) in his heart for years.

8.His attention               (concentrate) on what he was doing,he didn't notice that his bike had been stolen.

9.A lot of work              (do),he had no time to talk with us.

10.He failed the exam,             (make) his father unhappy.

11.He is kind to Bill,with               he plays chess.

12.Is this the car              which you paid a high price?

【第2题】  

单句语法填空

1.It              (whisper) that the firm is likely to go bankrupt.

2.Every year in this country more than 50,000 children are               (bite) by dogs.

3.She assisted him              his experiments.

4.There is convincing evidence that listening to loud music can do great harm              our hearing.

5.We have a growing population and               we need more food.

6.But for most people               (read) a newspaper has become a habit passed down from generation to generation.

7.The statue was built in memory              the famous scientist.

8.We, also in               (tear), looked at him as he proudly showed his certificate (证书).

9.A great deal of attention               (pay) to protecting the environment since then.

10.Winter               (come),it gets colder and colder.