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动词­ing形式作宾语补足语和状语

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动词­ing形式作宾语补足语和状语知识点包括英语中的分词、动词的­ing形式作宾语补足语、现在分词作状语、注意事项等部分,有关动词­ing形式作宾语补足语和状语的详情如下:

英语中的分词

英语中分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种。现在分词由“动词+­ing”形式构成,在句子中可以作定语、表语、宾语补足语和状语。现在分词的基本形式如下:

 

现在分词一般式常表示该动作与句子谓语动作同时发生,而现在分词的完成式则表示该动作发生在谓语动作之前。

动词的­ing形式作宾语补足语

动词的­ing形式作宾语补足语时,与宾语之间是主谓关系,即宾语是其逻辑上的主语。现在分词作补语时常用于以下三种情况:

1.表示感觉和心理状态的动词,如see,hear,feel,smell,watch,find,listen to,look at,notice,observe等。例如:

I felt the house shaking.

我觉得房子在晃。

I found a beggar standing at the door.

我发现一个乞丐站在门口。

特别提示:在see,hear,feel,watch等感官动词后,既可用动词的­ing形式作宾语补足语,也可用省略to的不定式作宾语补足语。用动词的­ing形式时,表示动作正在进行,用省略了to的不定式时,表示动作从开始到结束的全过程。

I saw him run across the road.

我看到他跑过了马路。(强调整个过程)

I saw him running across the road.

我看见他正跑过马路。(强调正在进行)

2.表示“指使”等意义的动词,如have,set,keep,leave,get等。

Don't keep the water running.

不要让水一直流。

The joke set her crying.

这个玩笑使她哭起来。

3.用于with复合结构中。如:

I couldn't do my homework with the noise going on.

由于噪音不断,我没法做家庭作业。

With so many people looking at her,she felt nervous.

这么多人看着她,她感到很紧张。

现在分词作状语

现在分词作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、方式或伴随动作。通常可转化成与之相对应的状语从句。

1.作时间状语

Walking in the park,she saw an old friend.

=When/While (she was) walking in the park,she saw an old friend.

当她在公园里散步时,她看到了她的一个老朋友。

Having finished the work,he went to see his teacher.

=After he had finished the work,he went to see his teacher.

完成这次工作后,他去看望他的老师。

特别提示:当表达正在进行的动作时,可直接在分词前面加when/while,此时也可理解为状语从句的省略。

2.作原因状语

Being ill,he couldn't go to school.

=As he was ill,he couldn't go to school.

因为生病了,他无法去上学。

3.作条件状语

Working hard,you'll make great progress.

=If you work hard,you'll make great progress.

如果你努力工作,你将取得重大进步。

4.作结果状语

His parents died,leaving him an orphan.

=His parents died and left him an orphan.

他的父母死了,他成了一个孤儿。

The snow lasted a week,resulting in a serious traffic confusion in the whole area.

=The snow lasted a week,and resulted in a serious traffic confusion in the whole area.

大雪持续了一周,结果造成了这一地区的严重的交通混乱。

5.作方式状语

He came running back to tell me the news.

他跑回来告诉我这个消息。

6.作伴随状语

I stood by the door,not daring to say a word.

=I stood by the door,and didn't dare to say a word.

我站在门旁,一句话也不敢说。

She walked along the street,singing softly to herself.

=She walked along the street and sang softly to herself.

她沿着街道一边走一边轻轻地唱。

7.作让步状语

Working or reading,she always did her best.

=Whether she worked or read,she always did her best.

无论工作还是读书,她总是尽最大的努力。

Working very hard,he didn't feel a bit tired.

=Though he worked hard,he didn't feel a bit tired.

尽管拼命地工作,他却丝毫不感到疲惫。

注意事项

1.现在分词作状语时,其逻辑主语一般与句子的主语保持一致。如果不一致,则使用分词的独立主格结构,即在分词前面加上它的逻辑主语。generally speaking(一般而言),judging from/by(从……判断),talking/speaking of(谈到)等作状语时,分词的逻辑主语可以与句子主语不一致。如:

My wife had a long talk with Sally,explaining why she didn't want the children to play together.

我妻子与萨莉谈了很长时间,解释她为什么不想让孩子们在一起玩。(explain与句子的主语my wife之间是主谓关系)

The train having gone,we had to wait another day.

火车已经离开,我们只好再等一天。(having gone的逻辑主语是the train,不是句子的主语we,故用分词的独立主格结构the train having gone)

Generally speaking,girls are more careful than boys.

通常来说,女孩子比男孩子更加细心。

2.现在分词作状语时,为明确状语的类型,有时可在分词前加上相应的从属连词(when,while,though,unless,as,if等)。“从属连词+现在分词”可看作状语从句的省略形式。如:

While (he was) waiting for the bus,he met Mary.

等公共汽车时他遇到了玛丽。

3.现在分词作状语时用一般式还是用完成式,要看分词动作和谓语动作有没有明显的先后顺序。如:

Having written the letter,John went to the post office.

写完信之后,约翰去了邮局。(分词动作发生在谓语动作之前)

Seeing the moving scene,they felt very excited.

看到这感人的一幕,他们非常激动。(分词动作和谓语动作几乎同时发生)

4.现在分词的否定形式是“否定副词not/never+现在分词”。如:

Not knowing how to find the subway,I asked a policeman for help.

我不知道怎样找到地铁,就去找警察帮忙。

最后编辑:2021-03-22 15:17:27

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典型例题

【第1题】  

.用括号中动词的适当形式填空

1Yesterday,another student and I,                          (represent) our university's student association,went to the Capital International Airport to meet this year's international students.

2.I stood for a minute                           (watch) them and then went to greet them.

3.She stepped back                           (appear) surprised and put up her hands,as if in defence.

4.Then Akira Nagata from Japan came in                           (smile).

5.Just at that moment,however,Akira bowed so his nose touched George's                           (move) hand.

6.                         (not know) anything about the accident,he went to work as usual.

7.The old man sat under the tree                           (listen) to the radio.

8.                          (turn) to the right,you will find the post office you're looking for.

9.                          (hold) back by the traffic jam,she couldn't get there on time.

10.                          (take) to hospital in time,the little girl infected with bird flu was saved at last.

【第2题】  

完成句子

1                          (靠近) the city center,I saw a stone statue of about 10 metres in height.(approach)

2.The glass fell to the ground,                          (摔成碎片).(break)

3.                          (听到这个消息),they immediately set off for Shanghai.(hear)

4.Yesterday,our manager,                         (代表我们公司),made a speech at the meeting.(represent)

5.                          (开得太快),you will damage your car.(drive)