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英语主谓一致的三个原则

考点详解

英语中主谓一致有三个原则,语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近原则,有关英语主谓一致的考点详情如下:

一、语法一致原则

即主语语法形式上的单复数形式与谓语的单复数形式要一致。

1.单数名词、代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句做主语时,谓语动词一般采用单数形式。

注意一个主语从句做主语,谓语动词一般用单数形式。但若从句谓语或从句后的表语是复数形式,则谓语动词用复数形式。

2.当主语是and, bothand 连接的并列结构时,如果主语指的是两个或两个以上的人或物,谓语动词用复数。

注意:两个单数名词用and连接,表示同一人,同一物、同一概念,或不可分割的整体时,谓语动词仍用单数。这时and 后面的名词没有冠词。

3.由 and 连接的并列单数主语的前面分别有each、every 、no、many a修饰时,谓语动词要用单数形式。

Every man and every woman has a good reason to be proud of the work done by their fathers.

每一个人都很有理由为他们的父亲所从事的职业感到骄傲。

Each boy and each girl has an apple.每个男孩和每个女孩都有一个苹果。

Many a teacher and many a student has seen the film.许多老师和学生都看过这部电影。

注意:each作主语或其修饰的名词作主语:

each作主语或其修饰的名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

Each student has an MP3, which gives them more ways to enjoy their spare time.

每个学生都有一个MP3,这给他们在课余时间享受生活提供了更多的方式。

Each of the class has been given a bike.

这个班里的每一个学生都得到了一辆自行车。

注意:each位于复数主语后或句尾,不影响谓语动词的数。

They each have built a happy family. (=They have built a happy family each.)

他们每个人都组建了幸福的家庭。

4.某些不定代词,如 either, neither, each, one, the other, another, anybody, anyone, anything, somebody, someone, something, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing 等做主语,谓语动词用单数。

Each of the students has a book.每个学生都有一本书。

5.主语是由“many a +名词”或“more than one+名词”构成,其意义虽属多数,但是随后的谓语动词仍然用单数。

Many a student is here.很多学生在这里。

More than one student goes to the park.很多学生去了公园。

注意“many+复数名词+than one”结构之后, 谓语动词一般多用复数形式。

More employees than one are against your suggestion. 反对你的提议的雇员不止一个。

二、意义一致原则

即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。

1.时间、距离、金钱、重量等复数名词做主语时,其谓语动词用单数。

时间:Three weeks is a long time to wait for an answer.

距离:One hundred kilometers is not a long distance.

金钱:20,000 dollars is not a small sum of money.

重量:Two hundred tons of water was used in that factory last month.

2.一个算式时,表示数目的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语动词用单数形式。

Twenty-five plus five is equal to thirty.

Forty-three minus twenty-five makes eighteen.

3.–s 结尾的学科名称,如:mathematics, physics, politics, economics,mechanics, athletics, linguistics 等

Mathematics seems to be difficult to me.

注意:专有名词,如国名、人名、书名、戏剧名、组织机构及形式复数意义单数的名词news和以-s结尾的疾病的名词,如measles,arthritis, bronchitis, rickets, mumps等,他们形式上是复数,但意义上是单数。用作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

No news is good news.

The Arabian Nights is a very interesting book.

The United States is a powerful country in the world.

4.山脉、群岛、瀑布、运动会等以-s 结尾的专有名词做主语,谓语动词用复数。

 The Olympic Games are held once every four years.

5.一些常用作复数或只有复数形式的名词做主语,谓语动词用复数。常用的这类词有:

a. Goods(货物);arms(武器); wages(工资);contents(内容); remains(尸体); fireworks(烟火);clothes(衣服);stairs(楼梯)等;

b.凡是由-ings 结尾的名词,如surroundings(环境); savings(储蓄存款);clippings (剪下来的东西), diggings(挖出来的东西),earnings(收入),filings(銼屑),lodgings ( 租住的房间),sweepings (扫拢的垃圾)等;

c.glasses; shorts(短裤); trousers; shoes; scissors(剪刀); scales(天平); gloves(手套); compasses(圆规); spectacles(眼镜). 但是若其前面有pair 等表示单位的名词时,那么谓语动词的单复数由这些表示单位的词的单复数决定。

One pair of shoes is missing.。

Two pairs of trousers are missing.

6.单复数同形的名词作主语,应根据其意义来决定谓语动词的形式。常见的名词可分为一下几类:

某些动物名词:deer; fish; sheep; grouse (松鸡); salmon(鲑); bison(野牛); swine(猪)等.

以-ese 或-ss 结尾的表示民族或国籍的名词:

Chinese; Japanese; Portuguese(葡萄牙人); Swiss(瑞士人); Vietnamese(越南人)等。

某些以-s 结尾的名词:

mans(方式,方法); species (种类); series (系列); works (工厂;著作); crossroads(十字路口); headquarters(司令部); barracks (营房); crops (部队); links(高尔夫球场);等.

某些表示计量单位的名词:

Horsepower(马力); hertz(赫兹); kilohertz(千赫)

其它一些名词:

Aircraft; craft(船;航空器;航天器); dice(骰子); offspring(子孙)等.

There are five sheep on the farm, but there are only three goats.

This glass works (factory) was set up in 1990.

These glass works are near the railway station.

Every possible means has been tried to to save the badly-hurt worker.

All possible means have been tried to to save the badly-hurt worker.

为了去拯救这个严重受伤的工人,我们已经尝试了所有可能的方法。

7.clothing, furniture, traffic, jewellery, baggage, equipment, luggage,等无生命的集体名词做主语,谓语动词用单数。

Clothing is badly needed in the flooded area.

8.people, police, cattle 等有生命的集体名词做主语,谓语动词用复数。

The police are looking for the thief.

9.集合名词class,family, team, club, population, enemy, party, crowd, crew, audience, public, government, majority, minority, staff, class, company, union, gang, committee, council,nation等做主语,如果作为一个整体看待,其谓语动词要用单数形式;如果就其中一个个成员而言,则谓语动词用复数。

My family is a large one.

My family are watching TV.

10.疑问代词who, what, which; 不定代词 all(指代的是“人”时, 谓语动词用复数;指代的是“物”时,谓语动词用单数), none, some, any;half/ most/enough/the rest/ the last/ lots/plenty/part/分数/百分数+of+名词做主语,谓语动词的单复数要由它们所接名词的单复数而定。根据其指代的内容而定。

All is going on very well.

All are present besides the professor.

A lot of students are coming to the meeting.

11.“a number of +复数可数名词”表示“一些,许多”,谓语动词要用复数。

“the number of +复数可数名词”表示“的数目,数量”,谓语动词要用单数。

The number of people invited was fifty, but a number of them were absent for different reasons.

有50个人被邀请,但是很多人因为各种各样的原因缺席了。

12.a quantity of /an amount of+名词做主语,谓语动词用单数。

   Quantities of / amounts of +名词做主语,谓语动词用复数。

   A(this) kind/sort/type of+名词做主语,谓语动词用单数。

   These (those) kinds/sorts/types of +名词做主语,谓语动词用复数。

A large quantity of books is here.

Large quantities of books are here.

A large amount of money is wasted.

Large amounts of money are wasted.

13. “one and a half+可数名词复数”,“one in (out of )+可数名词复数”作主语,谓语动词一般用单数。

One and a half days is all the manager can spare. 经理只能抽出一天半的时间。

One in three students can speak English in this school. 在这所学校的每三个学生中就有一个会说英语的。

注意:one or two, a…or two修饰的名词作主语:

One or two后接复数名词作主语,谓语动词要用复数。但在“a/an+单数名词+or two”结构之后,位于却常用单数。

14.关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中做主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。

Those who want to go to the park, please stand up.

Some of the energy that is used by man nowadays comes from the atom.

“one of +复数名词+定语从句”,定语从句的谓语动词用复数。

“the only/the very/the first/the last + one of +复数名词+定语从句”, 定语从句的谓语动词用单数。

15.“the +形容词/分词”做主语,如果指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数。

The rich are not always happy.

三、(靠)近原则

即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,
一般一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。

1.由 or; eitheror; neithernor; whetheror; not onlybut also,notbut等连接的并列主语,谓语动词常与最近的主语在单复数上保持一致。

Neither you nor I am fit for the work.

Not only Tom but also Mary and Jane are tired of doing the same thing every day.

注意:“with /along with/ together with/ combined with/ as well as/ like/unlike/ rather than/ but/ except /besides/ in addition to/ including/ more than/ no less than/accompanied by +名词”置于主语后,他们都充当插入语,谓语动词一般仍与前面的名词在单复数上保持一致。

He, like you and Jim, is clever.

The father, rather than the brothers, is responsible.

Mary, as well as her sisters, studies Chinese in China.

Nobody except Bill and Jonny has entered the second round of the interview.但当

但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数。
例如:Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.

最后编辑:2021-03-29 10:08:42

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