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”省略“语法讲解

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”省略“语法讲解知识点包括简单句的省略、比较结构的省略、并列句中的省略、主从复合句中的省略、不定式的省略、虚拟语气中的省略、介词的省略、使用so,not等的省略等部分,有关”省略“语法讲解的详情如下:

简单句的省略

1.祈使句的省略。在祈使句中,通常省略主语you。

  Open the window.

  请(你)打开窗户。

2.在一些口语中可以省略某些句子成分。

  (Is there)Anything else?

  (还有)其他东西吗?

3.疑问句的答语省略。为避免重复而省略疑问句的答语,这也是常见的一种句式省略。

—Are you a student?

——你是一名学生吗?

—Yes,I am(a student).

——是的,我是(一名学生)。

4.感叹句的省略。目的是突出感叹的部分。

  What a beautiful girl(she is)!

  (她是)多么漂亮的女孩呀!

比较结构的省略

在“the+比较级,the+比较级”结构中和由than和as引导的比较句式中,常会有一些成分在上下文清楚的情况下被省略。

The sooner(you do it),the better(it will be).

(你做得)越快(结果就会)越好。

He is cleverer than any other boy (is).

他比其他男孩聪明。

并列句中的省略

在由and或but连接的并列句中,常省略一些重复的词或词组。

My father is a lawyer and my mother (is) a teacher.

我爸爸是律师,我妈妈是教师。

She came into the room and (she) turned on the computer.

她进了房间,打开了电脑。

The news made me angry,but (the news made) John happy.

这条消息使我生气,但却让约翰高兴。

主从复合句中的省略

1.宾语从句中,连词that常省略,但当有多个并列宾语从句时,只能省略第一个that。

I know(that)she is a teacher and that she is an excellent writer.

我知道她是一名教师,也是一位优秀的作家。

2.表示条件、时间、地点、方式或让步等的状语从句的谓语含有be动词,且从句的主语又和主句中的主语一致,或者主语是it时,常把从句中的主语连同be动词一起省略。

If so(=If it is so),you must go back and get it.

如果是这样的话,你必须回去把它拿来。

Look out for cars when crossing the street (=when you  are crossing the street).

穿过街道时要当心车辆。

3.定语从句中的省略。若引导定语从句的关系代词在从句中作宾语,该关系代词一般可省略。

The car(which/that)his father gave him as a birthday present was stolen.

他父亲送给他的作为生日礼物的那辆汽车被盗了。

不定式的省略

1.并列的不定式可以省略后面的不定式符号to。但若两个不定式之间表示对比关系时,不省略to。

The book is intended to be read and not (to) be torn.

这本书是供人阅读的而不是供人撕毁的。

The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, not to make it more difficult.

新技术的目的是要让生活更轻松自在,而不是让生活更困难。

2.某些使役动词如make,let,have等,和感官动词如see, watch,notice,observe等,后面作宾补的不定式须省略to,但若这些动词用于被动语态,则to不省略。

My mother wouldn't let me go to see the film.

我妈妈不会让我去看电影的。

He was noticed to leave the office.

有人注意到他离开了办公室。

3.不定式to后面的内容也可承前省略,此时所省略的成分相当于do so,但一定要有上下文语境。但倘若承前省略的不定式含有作助动词用的have,be的任何形式,to后要保留原形have或be。

—Would you like to study English with me?

——你愿意和我一起学英语吗?

—Yes. I'd like to (study English with you).

——是的,我愿意(和你一起学英语)。

She has succeeded in the final examination,but in fact, she ought to have(succeeded in the final examination).

她在期末考试中取得了成功,而实际上,她本就该获得成功。

4.介词but,except(除了)前有实义动词do的具体形式时,后面的不定式不带to。

All he could do was nothing but wait and see.

他所能做的只有等着看看(情况)。

虚拟语气中的省略

1.虚拟条件句常省略if,而将were,had,should提前,构成部分倒装。

Had you come here yesterday,you would have met her.

=If you had come here yesterday,you would have  met her.

如果你昨天来这儿的话,你就会见到她了。

2.动词advise,suggest(建议),propose,demand,insist(坚持要求),require,command,recommend,order等后的宾语从句及It is...that...主语从句中常省略表虚拟语气的should。

We insisted that they (should) go with us.

我们坚持要求他们和我们一起走。

It is necessary that we (should) learn more words by heart.

我们有必要多记一些单词。

It is suggested that we (should) go to see the film.

有人建议我们去看这部电影。

介词的省略

1.在英语中一些与动词、名词、形容词搭配的介词常被省略,而只保留后面的动名词:spend time/money (in) doing sth.; have difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth.;prevent/stop sb.(from)doing sth.。

She spends half an hour (in) doing some reading  every day.

她每天花半小时读书。

I have some trouble (in) learning English.

我学英语有困难。

What prevented him (from) going?

什么事阻止了他去?

2.表示时间的介词at,on和in用在next,last,this, each,these,yesterday,every,tomorrow等词之前,一般可省略。

We have a final exam (in) every term.

每学期我们都举行一次期末考试。

使用so,not等的省略

英语中,可以使用so,not或其他手段来省略上文或问句中的一部分或整个句子。

—Can I put my bike here?

——我可以把自行车放在这儿吗?

—You'd better not.

——你最好不要。

—Do you think our team will win?

——你认为我们队会赢吗?

—I think so.

——我认为会。

最后编辑:2021-03-23 10:04:46

相关知识点

典型例题

【第1题】  

用适当的词或所给词的适当形式填空

1.—Is it going to rain tomorrow?

—I'm afraid         .

2.Don't plant potatoes till I tell you to.

3.—I hear that Bai Shan can't afford his schooling this fall.

—If         ,_let's do something for him.

4.—Have you fed the dog?

—No, but I'm just going        .

5.—I'm afraid the date for the interview doesn't suit me.

—If         ,_we can make it another day.

6.—My spoken English is poor, what shall I do?

        (join) an English language club to practice, and you'll be good at it.

7.—Would you like to join us in going to Hong Kong's Disneyland this Sunday?

—I'd love         ,_but I have to prepare for my examination on Monday.

8.—Are you a doctor?

—No, but I want          .