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不定式的用法

考点详解

不定式的用法知识点包括不定式的时态和语态、不定式的语法功能等部分,有关不定式的用法的详情如下:

不定式的时态和语态

1.不定式的形式

不定式有六种形式,以 write 为例,列表如下:

 

主动语态

被动语态

一般式

to write

to be written

完成式

to have written

to have been written

进行式

to be writing

 

完成进行式

to have been writing

 

2.使用情况

(1)一般式:不定式的动作与谓语动作同时发生或在谓语动作之后发生。

He seems to know this.

他似乎了解这件事。

(2)进行式:不定式的动作与谓语动作同时发生,并强调动作的持续性或正在进行。

He pretended to be working hard.=He pretended that he was working hard.

他假装干得很卖力。

When he came in, I happened to be reading the novel.

他进来时,我碰巧正在读小说。

(3)完成式:不定式的动作发生在谓语动作之前或已经发生。

I am sorry to have given you so much trouble.

给你添了这么多麻烦真抱歉。

She is said to have just completed a novel.

据说她刚完成一部小说。

(4)完成进行式:强调不定式的动作从过去某一时刻起一直持续到某一时刻,强调动作的持续性,不强调结果。

The rain was said to have been falling for a week.

据说雨已下一周了。

He was happy to have been staying with his uncle.

他很高兴一直跟他叔叔住在一起。

(5)被动式:不定式的逻辑主语是不定式动作的承受者。

She felt puzzled to be asked such a question.

被问了这样一个问题,她很疑惑。

The factory to be built here next year is a car factory.

明年在这里建的工厂是一家汽车制造厂。

不定式的语法功能

不定式在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和宾补。高考侧重考查不定式作定语、宾语、状语和宾补的用法。

1.不定式作定语

(1)不定式作定语通常要放在被修饰词的后面,往往表示将要发生的动作。

The weather will be sunny in the days to come.

未来几天将是晴天。

(2)中心词是序数词、形容词最高级、the last/the only/the next 或被这些词修饰时,用不定式作定语。

Zhang Jian is the first Chinese to swim across the Bohai Sea.

张健是第一个横渡渤海的中国人。

He was the only one to finish the task on time.

他是唯一一个按时完成任务的人。

(3)抽象名词 time, way, reason, chance, courage, opportunity, ability 等后以及不定代词 something, nothing, little 等后常用不定式作定语。

A subway is an effective way to solve traffic problems in a big city.

地铁是解决大城市交通问题的有效方法。

(4)“there be+主语+to do”和 have sth. to do 结构中,不定式也作后置定语。

There is nothing to worry about.

没什么可担心的。

He has a lot of work to do today.

今天他有大量的活要干。

2.不定式作状语

(1)作目的状语。可位于句首或句末,其前可加 in order/so as,但 so as to 不可位于句首。

I got up early (in order) to catch the 6:30 train.

我早起是为了赶那趟六点半的火车。

(2)作原因状语。

I am glad to see you.

见到你很高兴。

He smiled to think of a clever plan.

想到了一个聪明的计划,他笑了。

(3)作结果状语,表示出人意料或不太好的结果,常与 only 连用;而现在分词作结果状语则表示自然而然的结果。

I hurried to the post office, only to find it closed.

我急忙赶到邮局,结果发现邮局关门了。

最后编辑:2021-03-23 13:27:09

相关知识点

典型例题

【第1题】  

单句语法填空

1.The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy          (watch) anything that happened to be on.

2.I dialed up corporate headquarters, only           (tell) those names were not yet public.

3.Volunteering gives you a chance            (change) lives, including your own.

4.The airport            (complete) next year will help promote tourism in this area.

5.It's standard practice for a company like this one           (employ) a security officer.

6.          (free) ourselves from the physical and mental tensions, we each need deep thought and inner quietness.

7.They hurried to the station, only           (find) their train had gone five minutes before.

8.He hurried to school only            (find) nobody there.

9.She wanted           (see) which shop offered the best service.

10.I feel it exciting            (see) the movie Wolf Warriors Ⅱ which Wu Jing directed and starred in.